0030: Menus V - A More Practical RadioMenuItem

Results of this example:
Current example output
Current example output
Current example terminal output
Current example terminal output (click for enlarged view)

Today let’s look at an example that can perhaps be adapted for everyday use.

Herein we set a bit of data with our RadioMenuItems and track it with an observed object. And when the application terminates, it spits out a report about the state of all options in the set. This example is patterned after the second CheckMenuItem example from two posts ago, so a lot of this ground was covered there.

Just a quick reminder (if you aren’t flipping back to the previous post) that we created an observed object in TestRigWindow which got handed down through the hierarchy. We do the same here, but because we’re dealing with RadioMenuItems and not CheckMenuItems, there will be a different approach.

The differences are in:

  • how the FileMenu adds items,
  • where features are turned on or off during signal-handling/callback, and
  • (of course) we have mutual exclusivity here which we didn’t in the CheckMenuItem example.

Let’s go through them…

A Busier FileMenu Class

Most of the differences (compared to the CheckMenuItem example) are in the constructor. But there are differences throughout, so let’s look at this thing in chunks:

Chunk #1

class FileMenu : Menu
{
	FeatureRadioMenuItem[] featureItemArray;
	FeatureRadioMenuItem featureItem;
	ExitItem exitItem;
	
	ListSG group;
  • Instead of giving each item it’s own name here, we’re creating an array (naming is deferred and we’ll see that in a moment),
  • the featureItem string will serve as a temporary name within the foreach loop used to create the items, and
  • group is declared here, but will be defined during creation of the first item.

Chunk #2

this(ObservedFeaturesList extObservedList)
{
	super();

	foreach(itemName; extObservedList.featureNames)
	{
		if(itemName == extObservedList.featureNames[0])
		{
			featureItem = new FeatureRadioMenuItem(group, extObservedList, itemName);
			group = featureItem.getGroup();
		}
		else
		{
			featureItem = new FeatureRadioMenuItem(group, extObservedList, itemName);
		}

		featureItemArray ~= featureItem;
		append(featureItem);
	}

This is the first part of the constructor and includes the foreach loop used to create the RadioMenuItems. We step through the featureNames string array (a part of the ObservedFeatureList object) to get label text for each item. The strings in featureNames decide the item names, and the number of strings decides how many items will be in the set.

  • the if statement takes care of the first item, the one that also defines the group variable,
  • note that even though we pass the group variable to the RadioMenuItem constructor, it comes back as null and only takes on a value when group = featureItem.getGroup() is executed,
  • the else statement passes the now-defined group along to all other items as they’re created so they become a set, and
  • at the end of the foreach, we concatenate the item into our array of items before appending it to the FileMenu.

Chunk #3

		extObservedList.setFeatureDefault();
		
		foreach(item; featureItemArray)
		{
			if(item.getLabel() == extObservedList.getDefaultFeature())
			{
				item.setActive(true);
			}
			else
			{
				item.setActive(false);
			}
		}

		exitItem = new ExitItem(extObservedList);
		append(exitItem);
		
	} // this()
	
} // class FileMenu

This part is where we set the default item and make sure the states of all items in ObservedFeaturesList agree with the RadioMenuItem set.

Since these things take place in the ObservedFeaturesList class, we’ll cover them when we get there.

Finally, we drop the ExitItem onto the end of the menu and bail:

exitItem = new ExitItem(extObservedList);
append(exitItem);
		
} // this()

Now let’s look at…

Mutual Exclusion in the ObservedFeaturesList Class

Again, we’ll look at this in chunks…

Chunk #1

class ObservedFeaturesList
{
	bool[string] features;
	string[] featureNames;
	string defaultFeatureName;

These variables are:

  • features : an associative array with Boolean flags for tracking which item is active; text strings used as item names double as keys in the key/value pairs,
  • featureNames : an array of strings used to name the RadioMenuItems; they do double duty when building the features associative array, and
  • defaultFeatureName : this string needs to match one of those in featureNames and is used to set the default item on startup.

Chunk #2

this()
{
	defaultFeatureName = "Large";
	featureNames = ["Small", "Medium", "Large", "Extra Large"];
	
} // this()

Earlier I mentioned that the naming of RadioMenuItems is deferred. Well, this is where it’s done. All we do in the constructor is define which item will be the default and then fill in the array naming all the RadioMenuItems in the set. This list can be extended or truncated to change the number of items in the set.

Note: Don’t forget to double-check that defaultFeatureName appears verbatim in the featureNames array.

Chunk #3

void setFeatureDefault()
{
	for(int i = 0; i < featureNames.length; i++)
	{
		string featureName = featureNames[i];
		
		if(featureName == defaultFeatureName)
		{
			features[featureName] = true;
		}
		else
		{
			features[featureName] = false;
		}
	}

} // setFeatureDefault()

This is the function called from FileMenu’s constructor, the one that—as the name implies—sorts out which RadioMenuItem will be turned on by default.

Chunk #4

void setFeature(string featureName)
{
	foreach(feature, state; features)
	{
		if(feature == featureName)
		{
			features[feature] = true;
		}
		else
		{
			features[feature] = false;
		}
	}
	
} // setFeature()

When an item in the set is selected by the user, this function is called by the callback to keep the ObservedFeaturesList in sync with the state of the RadioMenuItem set.

Chunk #5

	string getDefaultFeature()
	{
		return(defaultFeatureName);
	}	
	
	
	bool getFeature(string featureName)
	{
		return(features[featureName]);
		
	} // getFeature()
	
	
	void listFeatures()
	{
		foreach(name, feature; features)
		{
			writeln(name, " = ", feature);
		}
		
	} // listFeatures()
	
} // class ObservedFeaturesList

These functions do the following:

  • getDefaultFeature() is called from the second half of FileMenu’s constructor to sync up the flags in the features associative array with the state of the RadioMenuItem set, and
  • getFeatureState() is unused in this example, but is here as a placeholder. It returns the Boolean value of the named feature. It can be tested like this (perhaps from somewhere near the end of the setFeature() function):
writeln("The state of ", featureName, ": ", getFeatureState(featureName));

And Finally: the FeatureRadioMenuItem Class

This is a lot of stuff we’ve seen before, but one thing I’d like to point out is this: The callback is triggered whether the RadioMenuItem is going into an on state or an off state. That’s why there’s also an if statement in there to test the state of the RadioMenuItem. I would assume you could also have an else for doing some type of clean-up or what-have-you when an item is deselected.

class FeatureRadioMenuItem : RadioMenuItem
{
	string labelText;
	ObservedFeaturesList observedList;
   
	this(ListSG group, ObservedFeaturesList extObservedList, string extLabelText)
	{
		labelText = extLabelText;
		super(group, labelText);

		observedList = extObservedList;
		addOnToggled(&toggleFeature);
		
	} // this()
	
	
	void toggleFeature(CheckMenuItem mi)
	{
		if(getActive() == true)
		{
			observedList.setFeature(labelText);
		}
		
	} // toggleFeature()
	
} // class FeatureRadioMenuItem

We could also have used the onActivate signal instead of onToggled, but the results are pretty much the same either way.

Now, since this looks to be the longest blog post I’ve done to date, pay no attention while I beat a hasty exit, stage right.



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